Outputs & Policy Impact

Outputs & Policy Impact


The results of this study have shown it is safe for people to be vaccinated against COVID-19 and influenza at the same time. The results of this study have been presented to the JCVI to aid policy makers in planning vaccination programmes.


Safety and Immunogenicity of Concomitant Administration of COVID-19 Vaccines with Seasonal Influenza Vaccines (The Lancet)



The JVCI recommendations to Government regarding booster vaccinations, which have been accepted as part of the government's Covid Autumn and Winter Plan, draw heavily on the ouputs from these two NISEC studies.


JCVI statement regarding a COVID-19 booster vaccine programme for winter 2021 to 2022  (Gov.uk)


The results from these studies are directly informing the use of ‘Mix and ‘Match’ COVID-19 vaccine schedules in the UK and globally. These results have shown that receiving mixed schedules of the ChAdOx1 nCOV-19 (‘Oxford AstraZeneca’) and BNT62b2 (Pfizer) vaccines administered at a 4 week interval generates higher antibodies and T cells against the COVID-19 virus than two doses of the ChadOx1 nCOV-19 vaccine. We also found that these mixed schedules resulted in a greater frequency of short terms side effects such as fatigue and feverishness. Initial results are available at:

Heterologous prime-boost COVID-19 vaccination: initial reactogenicity data (The Lancet)


Safety and Immunogenicity Report from the Com-COV Study (The Lancet)

These results have informed use of mixed schedules in the UK and internationally, demonstrating that the ChAdOx1 nCOV-19 followed by BNT62b2 may be appropriate according to local and individual circumstances.
This study, led by Dr Rajeka Lazarus at University Hospitals Bristol and Weston NHS Foundation Trust, is evaluating the co-administration of COVID-19 and influenza vaccines and has directly informed the planned implementation of the 2021/2022 influenza and COVID-19 booster campaigns.

JCVI interim advice: potential COVID-19 booster vaccine programme winter 2021 to 2022 (GOV.UK)

What’s the STORY
This study has collected over 3500 blood samples from nearly 3000 children, adolescents and young adults from November 2019 to June 2021. Initially designed to evaluate the concentrations of antibodies against vaccine preventable diseases such as diphtheria and group C meningococcus (MenC) in 0 to 24 year olds across England, this was adapted in response to the COVID-19 outbreak to conduct a unique, community based assessment of SARs-CoV-2 infection and immunity throughout the pandemic. These results have been presented to UK SAGE to inform policy regarding re-opening of schools and risk factors for infections.